Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan is a state in Central Asia. Neighboring countries are Kazakhstan in the west and north, Kyrgyzstan in the east, Tajikistan and Afghanistan in the south, Turkmenistan in the south. In the west, the state borders the western Aral Sea and Sarykamysh Lake. It was founded in October 1924 as the Uzbek Socialist Soviet Republic, a part of the Soviet Union, and became independent in 1991.

Geography and  climate

Uzbekistan has an area of ​​448,900 km² and is located in the middle of Central Asia. In addition to Liechtenstein, it is the only landlocked country on earth, which in turn is surrounded only by landlocked countries. So you have to cross at least two national borders to get into a state with access to an open sea. The extent of Uzbekistan is about 1425 km from west to east and about 930 km from north to south. The entire length of the state border of Uzbekistan is 6221 km. The country consists largely of steppes and deserts with densely populated river valleys and oases. It is bordered to the east by the mountainous regions of Tianshan and Pamir. The highest mountain of Uzbekistan with 4643 meters lies in the Hissargebirge (province Surxondaryo). It was once called the Mountain of the Twenty-second Congress of the Communist Party, was then nameless for a while, and is now called Hazrat Sulton. The lowest point in the country is twelve meters below sea level in the Kysylkum desert. Uzbekistan flows through the two main tributaries of the Aral Sea and the largest rivers of Central Asia, the 2539 km long Amudarja and the 2212 km long Syrdarja. However, both rivers lie in Uzbekistan with only part of their run. The source rivers of Amudarja, in ancient times called Oxus, hence the classic term Transoxanien, originate outside Uzbekistan in the Tajikistan and Afghanistan belonging to Pamir. The Amudarja forms in its middle course, first the Uzbek-Afghan border and then runs parallel to the border of Uzbekistan to Turkmenistan, but only in a section directly following the river. Its estuary belongs entirely to Uzbekistan. The source rivers of the Syrdarja originate in Kyrgyzstan’s Tianshan. The Syrdarja crosses in its middle course the Uzbekistan belonging part of the Ferghanatals, then flows over the territory of Tajikistan, southwest of Tashkent again a route through Uzbekistan, while its lower reaches belong to Kazakhstan. Other important rivers are the Surxondaryo (Surchundarja), a right tributary of the Amudarja, the Qashqadaryo (Kashkadarja), which reaches the oasis of Qarshi (Karschi), and the Zarafshon (Serafschan), the oases of Samarqand (Samarkand) and Buxoro ( Bukhara) and finally ends in the desert southwest of Bukhara, without having reached the Amudarja. The largest lakes in the country, some of them entirely in Uzbekistan, are next to the Western Aral Sea, the Aibugir Sea, the Sarykamysh Lake (Sariqamish ko’li), the Aydar Ko’l and the artificial Talimardschan Reservoir.

The climate of Uzbekistan belongs to the temperate zone. Depending on the region, continental humid climate, temperate steppe climate or temperate desert climate predominate. The summers are mostly hot and cloudless, the winters unstable and cold. The annual rainfall is – depending on the region – only 50-400 mm, but increases in the mountains sometimes over 1000 mm annually. The temperatures fluctuate both year and daytime strong. Total rainfall over Uzbekistan is approximately 12.2 km³ per year, equivalent to less than 0.2% of the water resources available in Uzbekistan.

Population

Uzbekistan has about 30 million inhabitants. Uzbekistan is a very young country, with around 10.4 million people, or almost 40% of the total population, under 18 years of age. About 17 million people, about 65% of the population, are under 30 years old. This results in an average age of only 22.9 years. Life expectancy at birth is 72 years on average, 69 years for men and 75.2 years for women. The population of Uzbekistan is made up of more than 100 peoples, of which 71% are Uzbeks, 5.1% Russians, 5% Tajiks, 4.1% Karakalpaks, 3.2% Kazakhs, 2.7% Tartars, 2.5% % Koreans. Smaller minorities include Turkmen, Uighurs, Volga Germans, Armenians, Mesheds, Azerbaijanis. In 2001 there were still 24,000 Germans in Uzbekistan. Stalin deported around 40,000 Volga Germans to Tashkent in the 1940s.

Management members

Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces (Uzbekistan viloyat, Pl. Viloyatlar, Soviet Oblast), an autonomous republic (Uzbek respublika) and a city (shahar) with provincial ranking. The provinces and the autonomous republic are divided into 157 districts (tuman) and 26 district-free cities, the capital (with province rank) in eleven city districts. The districts are 91 S cities, 1049 urban settlements or small towns (shacharcha) and 1457 “rural communities” (qishloq fuqarolar yig’in, literally “village citizens’ assembly”). 15 urban settlements and 12 “rural communities” are subordinate to various districts-free cities, as well as one city (Yangiobod, to the district-free city of Angren). An urban settlement (Ulug’bek) is subordinate to the district of Mirzo Ulug’bek the capital Tashkent. The autonomous republic guarantees the Uzbek constitution the right to decide by referendum to secede from the Republic of Uzbekistan. It also has its own constitution and laws as long as they are in accordance with the Uzbek Constitution. Economy In the former Soviet Union, Uzbekistan was one of the poorer areas. More than 60% of the population lived in sparsely populated rural communities. Today Uzbekistan is the world’s third largest cotton exporter, a major producer of natural gas, gold and copper, and a local producer of chemical products and machinery. In the aftermath of independence in 1991, the then government attempted to absorb the Soviet-style planned economy with support money and strong control of production and prices. In 1994, due to heavy inflation, the economy began to reform. The investment climate for foreign investors was to be improved, the role of the state slowly reduced, privatization further promoted and a stricter monetary policy introduced. The share of more than 470,000 small and medium-sized enterprises in gross domestic product increased from 30% in 2000 to 53% in 2010. Today they employ 74% of the working population. Approximately 30% of the companies are engaged in trade and gastronomy, about 20% in agriculture.

Religion

 90% of the population are Sunni Muslims, about 8% are Russian Orthodox (mostly members of the Russian minority). In addition, there are Shiite Muslims (especially in Bukhara and Samarkand) as well as members of other Christian denominations in Uzbekistan (members of the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Catholic Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church and various Protestant communities) as well as Jews (about 93,000 believers ) Buddhists, followers of Baha’i and devotees of the teachings of Krsna. The constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Ramadan is practiced by probably 40% of Muslims in cities and 85% in rural areas. The Central Asian folk Islam still has influences from two other religions, the monotheistic Zoroastrianism, which dates back to 1800 BC. Chr. And 600 v. Chr. Probably originated in Bactria, and Buddhism. Also common are elements of shamanism and popular Islamic piety, which manifests itself, for example, in pearl necklaces and amulets, which are to protect against the so-called evil eye and are common in parts of the country.

Arrival

Travel time: The best time to travel to Uzbekistan is April-May and September-October. This time is called a tourist season. This season is great for the people who want to make a cultural trip. Summer is quite hot, but worth it for hiking and mountain tours in Tianshan and Pamir mountains. You can also visit the country during interesting festivals. Dates of the festivals are fixed, still in turns. You should ask the tour operator on site.

Uzbekistan festivals and  holidays

Arriving by plane: The state airline Uzbekistan Airways is the only airline offering direct flights from London to Tashkent. In addition, you can fly to Uzbekistan with Turkish Airline or Aeroflot flies with a stop.

Customs declaration and registration: Upon entry two identical customs declaration must be completed. These are obtained before the immigration switches. The customs declaration must list the cash, jewelry and valuables. One of the two declarations you get stamped back and must leave them at the exit together with a new, updated customs declaration. Any foreigner traveling to Uzbekistan must be registered 72 hours after arrival in Uzbekistan. Usually you do not pay for the registration in the hotel.

Traveling in the country: The best way to travel around Uzbekistan is by local flights. If you want to enjoy the scenery during the trip, then take a train or vehicles. The national airline Uzbekistan Airways flies the larger cities daily. Excellent train connections exist between Tashkent and Samarkand  and  Bukhara, but also Termiz , Urgench, Nukus, Karshi are well connected to the railway network.

Accommodation and hotels: Uzbekistan has more than 300 hotels in different categories. We only suggest certified hotels. Accommodation in cozy guesthouses, yurts or small 2-3 star hotels in the tourist towns are proposed by us. But in Tashkent you can find 5 star hotels.

Hotels in Uzbekistan

What to do in Uzbekistan: Uzbekistan is rich in culture, tradition and history, so you can visit the magnificent architectural monuments in the cities of the Silk Roads, participate in cultural events and experience arts and crafts. The country also has a unique nature with mountains, deserts, steppes and oases where you can do trekking and hiking, safari.

Practical information

  • Visa to Uzbekistan
  • National symbols of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbek cuisine
  • Nature of Uzbekistan
  • Air line of Uzbekistan
  • Money, local currency in Uzbekistan
  • Shopping in Uzbekistan
  • Drinks in Uzbekistan
  • Culture in Uzbekistan
  • Formalities for entry into Uzbekistan
  • Inernet in Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan sights

Uzbekistan  Service

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