Tajikistan- the land of high mountains

Tajikistan is an old country in southeastern Central Asia. Uzbekistan and the Kyrgyz Republic are in the west and north, China and Afghanistan in the east and south.

The Republic of Tajikistan is not large and covers an area of ​​143 thousand square kilometers (350 km from north to south and 700 km from west to east). The more than 6 million inhabitants of Tajikistan are ethnically different. While Tajiks make up over 70% of the population, almost 70 other nationalities live in Tajikistan. These nationalities include Uzbeks, Russians, Kyrgyz, Tatars and Ukrainians. The country’s official language is Tajik and Russian for documentaries. More than 90% of the population are Muslim. People are known for their hardworking nature, their sedentary life, their dedication to family, children, home and homeland. They are very hospitable, kind, friendly and respect their customs and traditions. Living in an area at the main crossroads of Eastern civilization has given them continuous access to the achievements of other cultures. The first settlement on the territory of today’s Tajikistan goes back to the end of the Old Paleolithic (15 to 20,000 years ago). Archaeological finds, the works of Herodotus, and other written evidence provide information about trade relations, customs, and the rituals of the nation. The country, which was primarily trading with neighbors, suffered for many centuries from foreign invasions by the troops of Alexander the Great, steppe nomads, Arabs and Tatar-Mongols.
The first Tajik state was founded in 892 and became independent of the Arab Khalif. The development that began in the Samanid period was marked by the restoration and fortress of
Guaranteed cities and more attention to culture, art and architecture. The Samanid state gave birth to the most famous scientists and philosophers – Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Tajik also worship Firdousi, a poet and composer of Shah-Nameh (Book of Kings), the Persian national epic, and Omar Khaiyam.

Tajikistan is characterized by its diversity and its contradictory natural conditions. It is determined by the fact that it is far from oceans in the Eurasian zone and mountainous relief. In summer, the temperature is between 30 and 40 ° C in the plains and between 8 and 10 ° C in winter, but it is cold in the mountains. 93% of Tajikistan is covered by mountains, including the highest Pamirs, where the largest mountain ranges in Asia – Karakorum, Kuenlun and Hindikush. The Pamirs are called the “roof of the world” because some of their peaks rise to a height of 7495 m above sea level. It is the summit of Ismoil Somoni. There is also the highest salt lake Karakul and the largest ice glacier Fedchenko (65 km).

The climate in Tajikistan is very different. It is subtropical in low valleys, temperate in medium mountain ranges and cold in high mountains. Because of this, it is possible to grow most sun-loving crops (including lemon plants) and achieve 2-3 harvests a year. There is a lot of ice and snow in the high mountains of Tajikistan. Tajikistan is also rich in lakes. Among them the famous – Iskanderkul, named after Alexander the Great, lake – “seven bellies” of the Fann Mountains.

The robust and mountainous Tajikistan is located in the heart of Central Asia, in the east with China and in the south with the Indian subcontinent. Three main streets of the Silk Road led through today’s area. These three routes were the Sogdian or the Northern Road, which connected Samarkand and Kashgar (China), the Karategin Road between Termez (Uzbekistan) and Kashgar; and the Pamir road between Balkh (Afghanistan) and Tashkurgan (China).

DUSHANBE – The capital of Tajikistan

Dushanbe – is the capital of the Republic of Tajikistan with more than 600,000 inhabitants and more than twenty foreign embassies. At the beginning of the 20th century, Dushanbe was a small village with 500 mud houses. The hotel is located in the center of the Hissar Valley at the crossroads of caravan routes and was famous for its picturesque Monday bazaars (Dushanbe means Monday in Tajiks). The capital lies at the confluence of the two rivers Varzob and Kofarnihon. The city is multinational and today is considered the country’s scientifically, culturally and industrially developed center. There are museums, theaters, universities, hotels and some historical monuments such as the Hissar fortress etc. have been preserved throughout the city.
The Hissar historical and cultural reserve near the capital Dushanbe is a fascinating archaeological complex that scientists say is from the 25th century. Several mosques, a caravanserai, a madrasah and a mausoleum have been excavated and are on display.

In earlier times, cities like Bukhara, Samarkand and Penjikent were the centers for the development of Zoroastrian culture. After the Arab invasion, Zoroaster’s Zerafshan and Pamir disintegrated. Ancient cities of the Great Silk Road like Khujand, Penjikent, Istaravshan, Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Merv, Osh were the places of vital, economic importance interests of many countries in the world. This part of the world was the intersection of caravan routes that connected north-south, east-west and led to China, India, Rome and Europe. So there are 22 cities in Tajikistan. Cities like Khujand (Alexandria Eskhata), Uroteppa (Ustrushana) and Penjikent are among the oldest settlements in the east.

ABOUT KHUJAND

Central Asia was also the battlefield in which Alexander the Great marched through the west with his troops and invaded almost all of Central Asia. The last bulwark of Alexander the Great was Khujand. The age of the ancient city of Khujand is 2500 years old and was called “Alexandria Eskhata” during the Greek invasion. Chingizkhan was invaded from the east. The troops of the Tatar-Mongolian hordes remained for a long time at the gates of Khujand and the ruler of the city XII. Century, Temurmalik, kept the fortress of the city for a long time.The ruins of this fortress can be seen as a symbol of heroism in our time. At its height, the city was a renewed religious center, and today the magnificent citadel, the Sheikh Muslihiddin mausoleum and an 18th-century mosque are among the monuments that attract visitors. Geographically, Khujand is located on the picturesque Sirdarya River, on both banks, and is called “The Gates of Fergana Valley”. Today Khujand is the developed scientific, cultural and economic center of North Tajikistan. Some historical monuments of history, religion and culture have also been preserved there.

Welcome to old Penjikent
It is the Sogdian city that bloomed from the V-hundred to the VIII-centimeter. It is so well preserved that it has been called “Pompei in Central Asia”. You can see an opulent governor’s palace, houses and temples. Sogddiana once controlled an important section of the Silk Road, but in the 8th century the empire collapsed and people fled to the mountains. Mercenaries of this ancient kingdom still In the more remote areas of today’s Tajikistan called Yagnob Valley, a distant dialect of Sogdian still lives and speaks. The old Sarazm, about 20 km from Penjikent, is one of the oldest settlements in Central Asia and dates from the Neolyth era.

Wielcome to Istaravshan (formerly Uro-Teppa)
Istaravshan (formerly Uro-Teppa) is one of the oldest and most beautiful cities in Tajikistan. His long history includes Alexander the Great’s arrest. In addition to a number of mosques, museums and clothing, there are also rich archaeological treasures in the area, including the city of Shakhristan. This rugged and remote country has, alongside the Silk Roads, the Pamir Mountains, sometimes referred to as “The Roof of the World”. From here, the three major mountain regions of Central Asia spread – the Hindikush, the Karakorum and the Tien-Shan.

THE HIGHEST SUMMITS OF TAJIKISTAN

The highest peak I.SOMONI (formerly communism) (7495) – a huge ice massif with a gigantic rock tower above it is the highest peak of the Pamir. It is located at the intersection of the Academia Nauk and the Pyotr-Perviy ridges – a district so far away that researchers could only gain access after 20 years of research. The first climbers conquered the peak “7495” (“Peak Stalin” – “Peak Communizm”) in 1993. Now there is an abundance of different complexity classes. The most popular and safest way – over Dushanbe Peak (6950 ms) from the great Pamir plateau.

EUGENIA KORZHENEVSKI summit (7105) – is located somewhat north of the Samanid summit (13 km), also in the ridge system of the Academia Nauk. The first climbers only conquered this summit in 1953. Now there are about 10 different levels of difficulty.

LENIN summit (7134) – a huge, snow-covered mountain range is located in the northern part of Pamir in the Zaalaisky mountains and is considered one of the easiest seven-thousanders that you can climb without special training and climbing experience.
After the first ascent in 1928, climbers used the abundance of different complexity classes. Everyone can choose a suitable route for their technical and physical skills. Even inexperienced climbers have the chance to conquer this summit. Lenin’s summit slopes are the ideal place for the descent (from the summit to the Leningletscher, height difference approx. 2.5 km) and for paragliding.

The high peaks in the Central Asian countries

KHAN-TENGRI summit (6995) – this looks like a giant ice pyramid, is located in the eastern part of Kyrgyzstan and also in the eastern part of the Tengri Tag series in the center of Pamir. After the first ascent in 1931, climbers used more than 10 difficult routes from all four sides. However, not all new routes were discovered.

POBEDA (VICTORY) summit (7439) – the highest peak of the snow-covered wall that stretches almost 30 km. One of the longest glaciers in the world is located between the peaks of Khan-Tengri and Pobeda (20 km). Yuzhny Inilchek (its length exceeds 60 km). Pobeda Peak is the northernmost seventh in the world. This mountain is covered with ice and the slopes are covered with snow. Strong winds challenge mountaineers and create snowstorms even in good weather. Experienced climbers confirm that the ascent to Pobeda Peak can be compared to conquering the Himalayan peaks. The first climbers conquered the hitherto unknown summit in 1938. In 1944 the summit got its name – Pobeda (victory).
At the summit there are some difficult routes – in the middle of the northern slope, on the eastern crest of the Chon-Teren pass and on the safest route – via West Pobeda (Vazha Pshavela) from the Diky pass (start from the Zvyozdichka glacier) Icefall 4500m, difference in altitude approx. 3 km, ice fall and steep snow in the lower section (Diky Pass), very steep ice and stone ascent along the northern ridge of West Pobeda (6918ms), long crossing of the western ridge (4 km) at a height of 7000 ms.

PAMIR -ALAY MOUNTAINS

PAMIR-ALAY is a buffer zone between Tien Shan and Pamir and consists of two main ridges, Zaalaisky in the east and Zeravshansky in the west.
ZERAVSHANSKY chain begins at the crossroads with the two ridges Alaisky and Turkestansky, where the Matcha Mountains lie to the west – Fann Mountains.
The mountainous MATCHA is a country with wonderful contrast, exoticism and legends. The forests of the juniper angle and the elevation 4000-5000 ms are neighbors of alpine meadows and grandiose ice falls, turquoise lakes and rocky obstacles. Visitors to this “country” see Lake Karakul-Katta – black “pearl” from Matcha
And the unique Raygorodsky Icefalls appreciate the true value of the valleys and rivers of Kshemys, Nurlou, Kalay-Mahmud. There are good opportunities for hiking and climbing.

ABOUT FANN MOUNTAIN

The FANN Mountains is the name of a mountain range that is part of the Pamir-Alay and is located in the heart of Central Asia, which is 200 km east of Samarkand. The Fann Mountains have more than ten peaks with a height of over 5000 meters. Beautiful mountain Chimtarga (5487ms) is the highest peak in the area. The banks of the numerous crystal-clear lakes are covered with jungle archa trees, which can only be found here. The trunks of the old Archa tree, which are wound into a spiral by the severe winter winds, have an unforgettable impression due to their unusual shapes. Birch trees, poplars, berries, wild cherry trees and many medicinal herbs grow in the valleys. Due to the fine climate, this area is very attractive for hikers, hikers, climbers, lovers of horse rides, etc. Rain, cloudy skies or strong winds are more likely to be here. The period from June to September is the cheapest for travel.

 

Back